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We make no claims regarding the medicinal, preventive or curative properties of wolfberries (lycium barbarum). This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent disease. The wolfberry fruit has been used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for more than 2000 years. Modern scientists have been researching the potential of wolfberries (lycium barbarum) over the past 20 years. Scroll down to see these research articles posted on the National Institutes of Health (NIH.GOV) website.

 

Selective Suppression of Cervical Cancer Hela Cells by 2-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-L-ascorbic Acid Isolated From the Fruit of Lycium Barbarum L

2010 Aug 19 Abstract

Lycium barbarum fruit has been used as a Chinese traditional medicine and dietary supplement for centuries. 2-O-β-D-Glucopyranosyl-L-ascorbic acid (AA-2βG), a novel stable vitamin C analog, is one of the main biologically active components of the fruit. In this report, we investigated the cytotoxic and antiproliferative effect of AA-2βG against cancer cells in vitro and identified the proteins with significantly differential expression in the cervical cancer cells (Hela) cultured in the presence of AA-2βG proteomic analysis. Our results demonstrated that the cytotoxic and antiproliferative activity of AA-2βG on cancer cell lines were in a cell type-, time-, and dose-dependent manner. Similar to vitamin C, the AA-2βG selectively induced cell death repressed the proliferation of Hela cells by the mechanism of cell apoptosis and cell cycle arrest induced by AA-2βG through a mechanism of stabilizing p53 protein. However, the biological activity of inhibition of cell proliferation in other malignant cancer cell lines or primary cells were varied, as demonstrated by either moderate inhibition or slight promotion following treatment with AA-2βG. Comparative analysis of the proteomic profiles and immunoblot analysis identified 15 proteins associated with repressing cell apoptosis and/or stimulating cell proliferation in Hela cells that were down regulated in the presence of AA-2βG or vitamin C. These data indicate that a mechanism of the AA-2βG and vitamin C mediated antitumor activity by down regulating the expression of proteins involved in cell apoptosis and proliferation and consequently inducing Hela cell apoptosis and cell cycle arrest, suggesting that AA-2βG and vitamin C may share a similar mechanism of inducing Hela cell apoptosis. These results also suggest that the L. barbarum fruit may be a potential dietary supplement and anticancer agent aimed at the prevention and treatment of cervical cancer.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20717715/

 

Structure Analysis of a Heteropolysaccharide From Fruits of Lycium Barbarum L. And Anti-Angiogenic Activity of Its Sulfated Derivative

2017 Nov 22 Abstract

Angiogenesis plays a crucial role in tumor growth and development. Blocking angiogenesis of tumor cells has become one of the most promising approaches in cancer therapy. Here, an acidic polysaccharide designated LBP1B-S-2 with an average molecular weight of 80.00kDa, was extracted and purified from dried mature fruits of Lycium barbarum L. by DEAE Sepharose™ Fast Flow and Sephacryl S-300 HR columns. Monosaccharide composition analysis indicated that the LBP1B-S-2 was composed of rhamnose, arabinose, galactose and glucuronic acid in a molar ratio of 3.13: 53.55: 39.37: 3.95. The backbone of LBP1B-S-2 was consisted of 1, 3-linked β-d-Galp, 1, 6-linked β-d-Galp and branches contained 1, 4-linked β-d-GlcpA, T-linked β-d-Galp, 1, 6-linked β-d-Galp, T-linked α-l-Araf, T-linked β-l-Araf, 1, 5-linked α-l-Araf and T-linked β-l-Rhap directly or indirectly attached to C-3 position of 1, 6-linked β-d-Galp or C-6 position of 1, 3-linked β-d-Galp, according to the results of partial acid hydrolysis analysis, methylation analysis, IR

and NMR spectra. The sulfated derivative of LBP1B-S-2, could significantly inhibit the tube formation of human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1) in vitro at concentration of (95nM) without significant cytotoxicity.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29174358/

 

Macrophages, Rather Than T and B Cells Are Principal Immunostimulatory Target Cells of Lycium Barbarum L. Polysaccharide LBPF4-OL

2011 Jul 14 Abstract

Aim of the study: Lycium barbarum L. is a renowned Yin strengthening agent in traditional Chinese medicine. Lycium barbarum L. polysaccharide-protein complex is well-known for its immunoregulatory and antitumor effects. LBPF4-OL is the glycan part of Lycium barbarum L. polysaccharide-protein complex fraction 4 (LBPF4). LBPF4-OL's active contribution in LBPF4 is still blank. In the study, we enrich the polysaccharide part of Lycium barbarum L. polysaccharide-protein complex, and investigate its immunostimulatory effects on mouse spleen cells, T cells, B cells and macrophages.

Materials and methods: Balb/C mice were used in vitro and in vivo studies. In in vitro study, lymphocyte proliferations were analyzed with (3)H-TdR incorporation method. Miltenyi MicroBeads were used in the purification of lymphocytes. Activation of T and B cells was analyzed by flow cytometry. In order to obtain the peritoneal macrophages, mice were injected i.p. with 1mL of sodium thioglycollate 3 days prior to killing. Spleen cells were stimulated with LBPF4-OL and cytokine concentrations in the supernatants were determined by multiplex bead analysis. In in vivo study, mice were injected i.p. with 1 mL of normal saline or 100 μg/mL LBPF4-OL daily for 6 days. Peritoneal macrophage functions were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and flow cytometry assay.

Results: Spleen cells and lymphocyte proliferation assay indicated that LBPF4-OL markedly induced the spleen cell proliferation, but could not induce proliferation of purified T and B lymphocytes. Further research revealed that B cell proliferation took place in the presence of activated macrophages or LPS. Multiplex bead analysis showed that LBPF4-OL can obviously induce IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and TNF-α production of the spleen cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Flow cytometric analysis showed that LBPF4-OL (i.p.) prompts CD86 and MHC-II molecules expression on macrophages. ELISA assay showed that LBPF4-OL can greatly strengthen macrophage releasing of TNF-α and IL-1β.

Conclusion: These results suggested that glycan LBPF4-OL plays an important role in the immunopharmacological activity of Lycium barbarum L. polysaccharide-protein complex, and primary mouse macrophages, rather than T and B cells, are the principal target cells of it.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21549827/

 

An evidence-based update on the pharmacological activities and possible molecular targets of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides

2014 Dec 17 Abstract

Lycium barbarum berries, also named wolfberry, Fructus lycii, and Goji berries, have been used in the People's Republic of China and other Asian countries for more than 2,000 years as a traditional medicinal herb and food supplement. L. barbarum polysaccharides (LBPs) are the primary active components of L. barbarum berries and have been reported to possess a wide array of pharmacological activities. Herein, we update our knowledge on the main pharmacological activities and possible molecular targets of LBPs.

 

  • Several clinical studies in healthy subjects show that consumption of wolfberry juice improves general wellbeing and immune functions.
  • LBPs are reported to have antioxidative and antiaging properties in different models. LBPs show antitumor activities against various types of cancer cells and inhibit tumor growth in nude mice through induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest.
  • LBPs may potentiate the efficacy of lymphokine activated killer/interleukin-2 combination therapy in cancer patients.
  • LBPs exhibit significant hypoglycemic effects and insulin-sensitizing activity by increasing glucose metabolism and insulin secretion and promoting pancreatic β-cell proliferation.
  • They protect retinal ganglion cells in experimental models of glaucoma.
  • LBPs protect the liver from injuries due to exposure to toxic chemicals or other insults.
  • They also show potent immunoenhancing activities in vitro and in vivo.
  • Furthermore, LBPs protect against neuronal injury and loss induced by β-amyloid peptide, glutamate excitotoxicity, ischemic/reperfusion, and other neurotoxic insults.
  • LBPs ameliorate the symptoms of mice with Alzheimer's disease and enhance neurogenesis in the hippocampus and subventricular zone, improving learning and memory abilities.
  • They reduce irradiation- or chemotherapy-induced organ toxicities.
  • LBPs are beneficial to male reproduction by increasing the quality, quantity, and motility of sperm, improving sexual performance, and protecting the testis against toxic insults.
  • Moreover, LBPs exhibit hypolipidemic, cardioprotective, antiviral, and antiinflammatory activities.

 

There is increasing evidence from preclinical and clinical studies supporting the therapeutic and health-promoting effects of LBPs, but further mechanistic and clinical studies are warranted to establish the dose-response relationships and safety profiles of LBPs.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25552899/

 

*These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration.

This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent disease.