We make no claims regarding the medicinal, preventive or curative properties of wolfberries (lycium barbarum). This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent disease. The wolfberry fruit has been used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for more than 2000 years. Modern scientists have been researching the potential of wolfberries (lycium barbarum) over the past 20 years. Scroll down to see these research articles posted on the National Institutes of Health (NIH.GOV) website.


Lycium Barbarum Polysaccharides Reduce Intestinal ischemia/reperfusion Injuries in Rats

2013 Aug 25 Abstract

Inflammation and oxidative stress exert important roles in intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBPs) have shown effective antioxidative and immunomodulatory functions in different models. The purpose of the present study was to assess the effects and potential mechanisms of LBPs in intestinal IRI. Several free radical-generating and lipid peroxidation models were used to assess the antioxidant activities of LBPs in vitro. A common IRI model was used to induce intestinal injury by clamping and unclamping the superior mesenteric artery in rats. Changes in the malondialdehyde (MDA), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, activated nuclear factor (NF)-κB, intracellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, E-selectin, and related antioxidant enzyme levels, polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) accumulation, intestinal permeability, and intestinal histology were examined. We found that LBPs exhibited marked inhibitory action against free radicals and lipid peroxidation in vitro. LBPs increased the levels of antioxidant enzymes and reduced intestinal oxidative injury in animal models of intestinal IRI. In addition, LBPs inhibited PMN accumulation and ICAM-1 expression and ameliorated changes in the TNF-α level, NF-κB activation, intestinal permeability, and histology. Our results indicate that LBPs treatment may protect against IRI-induced intestinal damage, possibly by inhibiting IRI-induced oxidative stress and inflammation.


2- O-β-d-Glucopyranosyl-l-ascorbic Acid, an Ascorbic Acid Derivative Isolated From the Fruits of Lycium Barbarum L., Modulates Gut Microbiota and Palliates Colitis in Dextran Sodium Sulfate-Induced Colitis in Mice

2019 Oct 4 Abstract

In this study, the effects of 2-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-l-ascorbic acid (AA-2βG), a natural ascorbic acid derivative from the fruits of Lycium barbarum, on treating the dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in mice were investigated. The results revealed that AA-2βG had palliating effects on DSS-induced inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in terms of slowing down the trends of body weight and solid fecal mass loss, reducing colitis disease activity index, improving serum physiological and biochemical indicators, increasing colon length, blocking proinflammatory cytokines, and increasing tight junction proteins. Additionally, AA-2βG treatment could promote the production of short-chain fatty acids and modulate the composition of the gut microbiota. The key bacteria related to IBD were found to be Porphyromonadaceae, Prevotellaceae, Rikenellaceae, ParasutterellaParabacteroides, 

and ClostridiumThe results indicated that AA-2βG might treat IBD through the regulation of gut microbiota, suggesting that AA-2βG has the potential to be used as a dietary supplement in the treatment of IBD.


Integrated Omics Profiling of Dextran Sodium Sulfate-Induced Colitic Mice Supplemented With Wolfberry ( Lycium barbarum)

2020 Mar 31 Abstract

We used a multi-omics profiling approach to investigate the suppressive effects of 2% Wolfberry (WOL)-enriched diets on dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis in mice. It was observed that in mice fed the WOL diet, the disease activity index, colon shortening, plasma concentrations of matrix metalloproteinase-3 and relative mesenteric fat weight were significantly improved as compared to the DSS group. Results from colon transcriptome and proteome profiles showed that WOL supplementation significantly ameliorated the expression of genes and proteins associated with the integrity of the colonic mucosal wall and colonic inflammation. Based on the hepatic transcriptome, proteome and metabolome data, genes involved in fatty acid metabolism, proteins involved in inflammation and metabolites related to glycolysis were downregulated in WOL mice, leading to lowered inflammation and changes in these molecules may have led to improvement in body weight loss. The integrated nutrigenomic approach thus revealed the molecular mechanisms underlying the ameliorative effect of whole WOL fruit consumption on inflammatory bowel disease.


Anti-inflammatory Effects of Lacto-Wolfberry in a Mouse Model of Experimental Colitis

2012 Oct 14 Abstract

Aim: To investigate the anti-inflammatory properties of Lacto-Wolfberry (LWB), both in vitro and using a mouse model of experimental colitis.

Methods: The effects of LWB on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) and interleukin (IL)-6 secretion were assessed in a murine macrophage cell line. in vitro assessment also included characterizing the effects of LWB on the activation of NF-E2 related 2 pathway and inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-induced nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation, utilizing reporter cell lines. Following the in vitro assessment, the anti-inflammatory efficacy of an oral intervention with LWB was tested in vivo using a preclinical model of intestinal inflammation. Multiple outcomes including body weight, intestinal histology, colonic cytokine levels and anti-oxidative measures were investigated.

Results: LWB reduced the LPS-mediated induction of ROS production [+LPS vs 1% LWB + LPS, 1590 ± 188.5 relative luminescence units (RLU) vs 389 ± 5.9 RLU, P < 0.001]. LWB was more effective than wolfberry alone in reducing LPS-induced IL-6 secretion in vitro (wolfberry vs 0.5% LWB, 15% ± 7.8% vs 64% ± 5%, P < 0.001). In addition, LWB increased reporter gene expression via the anti-oxidant response element activation (wolfberry vs LWB, 73% ± 6.9% vs 148% ± 28.3%, P < 0.001) and inhibited the TNF-α-induced activation of the NF-κB pathway (milk vs LWB, 10% ± 6.7% vs 35% ± 3.3%, P < 0.05). Furthermore, oral supplementation with LWB resulted in a reduction of macroscopic (-LWB vs +LWB, 5.39 ± 0.61 vs 3.66 ± 0.59, P = 0.0445) and histological scores (-LWB vs +LWB, 5.44 ± 0.32 vs 3.66 ± 0.59, P = 0.0087) in colitic mice. These effects were associated with a significant decrease in levels of inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β (-LWB vs +LWB, 570 ± 245 μg/L vs 89 ± 38 μg/L, P = 0.0106), keratinocyte-derived chemokine/growth regulated protein-α (-LWB vs +LWB, 184 ± 49 μg/L vs 75 ± 20 μg/L, P = 0.0244), IL-6 (-LWB vs +LWB, 318 ± 99 μg/L vs 117 ± 18 μg/L, P = 0.0315) and other pro-inflammatory proteins such as cyclooxygenase-2 (-LWB vs +LWB, 0.95 ± 0.12 AU vs 0.36 ± 0.11 AU, P = 0.0036) and phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (-LWB vs +LWB, 0.51 ± 0.15 AU vs 0.1 ± 0.04 AU, P = 0.057). Moreover, antioxidant biomarkers, including expression of gene encoding for the glutathione peroxidase, in the colon and the plasma anti-oxidant capacity were significantly increased by supplementation with LWB (-LWB vs +LWB, 1.2 ± 0.21 mmol/L vs 2.1 ± 0.19 mmol/L, P = 0.0095).

Conclusion: These results demonstrate the anti-inflammatory properties of LWB and suggest that the underlying mechanism is at least in part due to NF-κB inhibition and improved anti-oxidative capacity.





*These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration.

This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent disease.